Cancer Screening Recommendations for Trans Women and Men

Breast/chest, cervical, and colon cancer screening is recommended for some trans women and men. Below is a summary of the cancer screening guidelines for trans women and men of average risk. If you feel you are at an increased risk for breast/chest, cervical, or colon cancer, speak with your healthcare provider.

Sexually active refers to:

  • oral, genital, or rectal skin-to-skin contact, or
  • sex with sex toys.

Trans Women:

AGE 21-69

  1. who have a history of genital warts and penile inversion vaginoplasty → Recommendation: Routine cervical cancer screening with a vault test.
  2. who have had a vaginoplasty where head of the penis was used to create a neo-cervix → Recommendation: Routine cervical cancer screening with a Pap test.

AGE 50-69

  1. who have taken gender-affirming hormones for 5 years or more → Recommendation: Routine screening mammograms may be considered at BreastCheck (no referral required) or a diagnostic imaging centre (doctor's referral required)
  2. who have taken gender-affirming hormones for 5 years or more and have breast implants → Recommendation: Routine screening mammograms may be considered but mmust be completed at a diagnostic imaging centre (doctor's referral required)
  3. who have not taken gender-affirming hormones or have taken gender-affirming hormones for less than 5 years → Recommendation: Routine screening mammograms are not recommended

Trans Men:

AGE 21-69

  1. who have had their cervix removed and have a history of cervical cancer or high-grade cervical dysplasia → Recommendation: Annual cervical cancer screening with a vault test
  2. who have not had their cervix removed and have been sexually active → Recommendation: Routine cervical cancer screening with a Pap test

AGE 50-69

  1. who have not had top surgery (still have breast tissue) → Recommendation: Routine screening mammograms are recommended every 2 years at BreastCheck (no referral needed) or a diagnostic centre (doctor's referral required)
  2. who has had top surgery (no longer have breast tissue) → Recommendation: Individualized assessment is required at a diagnostic centre (doctor's referral required)